|GBU-43 bomb. Pic: US Department of Defence|
It is the first time this type of bomb has been used in combat, Pentagon spokesman Adam Stump said.
It was dropped from an MC-130 aircraft in the Achin district of Nangarhar province, very close to the border with Pakistan.
The GBU-43 bomb, weighing 21,600 lbs (9,797kg), is GPS-guided, contains 11 tonnes of explosives and is the US military's largest non-nuclear device.
Its nickname, 'the mother of all bombs', is based on the name given to it by the US Air Force - 'Massive Ordnance Air Blast' bomb and it is regarded as particularly effective against clusters of targets on or just underneath the ground.
Mr Stump said the bomb was dropped on a group of caves and bunkers, believed to be used by Islamic State in Afghanistan, an affiliate group known by its US military acronym of 'ISIS-K'.
The weapon, which was first tested just days before the Iraq War in March 2013, was dropped at 7.32pm local time (4.02pm UK time) after its deployment was signed off by General John Nicholson, the commander of US forces in Afghanistan.
General Nicholson said the strike was designed to minimise the risk to Afghan and US forces conducting clearing operations in the Achin area "while maximising the destruction" of IS fighters and facilities.
He said IS has been using improvised explosive devices, bunkers and tunnels to strengthen its defences.
|Trump on huge bomb and how N Korea 'will be taken care of'|
File pic: A GBU-43/B bomb seen in 2003
White House press secretary Sean Spicer said of the strike: "The GBU is a large, powerful and accurately delivered weapon. We targeted a system of tunnels and caves that ISIS fighters used to move around freely, making it easier for them to target US military advisers and Afghan forces in the area."
US President Donald Trump praised the US military for carrying out another "successful" mission, but was both vague and threatening when asked if the use of the weapon carried an implicit warning to North Korea.
He said: "I don't know if this sends a message to North Korea... North Korea is a problem, the problem will be taken care of."
He then backed China's president Xi Jinping to deal with his ally.